Low-pass genotyping is a genotyping approach that involves sequencing DNA samples at a lower coverage depth. In this method, instead of sequencing the entire genome at a high coverage depth, a subset of the genome is sequenced at a lower depth, typically between 0.1x and 5x coverage. This reduced coverage is achieved by sequencing a smaller number of DNA fragments or by sequencing fewer reads per fragment.
Low-pass genotyping is primarily used for large-scale population studies and genomics research, where the focus is on identifying common genetic variants rather than detecting rare variants or analyzing individual genomes in detail. By sequencing a larger number of samples at lower coverage, it becomes possible to genotype thousands or even tens of thousands of individuals in a cost-effective and timely manner.
While low-pass genotyping provides a more affordable and scalable approach for genotyping large populations, it may have limitations in accurately detecting rare variants or structural variations. However, it is still useful for association studies, population genetics, and understanding the overall genetic diversity within a population.
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